- About Wuxi
The recorded history of Wuxi, one of Jiangnan civilization origins, can be traced back to the end of the Shang Dynasty (1600 BC – 1046 BC), over 3000 years ago. At the end of 11BC, in order to give authority to the youngest brother Jili, Taibo, the oldest son of King Zhoutai, took his younger brother, Zhongyong, from Qishan in the west to Jiangnan in the east and stayed in Meili (currently known as Meicun Residential Street in Wuxi). They built walls and founded a state named “Gouwu”. After Zhou defeated Shang, King Zhouwu awarded Zhou Zhang, great-great-grandson of Zhongyong, as King of Wu and founded the State of Wu. In 473BC, Yue defeated Wu and Wuxi was affiliated to Yue. In 334BC, Chu defeated Yue and Wuxi was affiliated to Chu. In 223BC, Qin defeated Chu, made Ji the capital and Wuxi was affiliated to it.
In 202BC, Wuxi County was established and affiliated to Ji. In 9 AD, it was renamed as Youxi County and in 25 AD it was changed back to Wuxi County. In the Three Kingdoms period, the west of Wuxi County was made farmland and the official was appointed to be in charge of it. In 280 AD, it was recovered to Wuxi County and affiliated to Pilin. This system was followed in Sui, Tang and Song Dynasties. In 1295, Wuxi County was lifted to Wuxi City. In 1368, Wuxi was fallen to Wuxi County. In 1724, Wuxi was divided into Wuxi and Jingui Counties and governed together by Changzhou. In 1911, after the Qing dynasty was overthrown, the Xijin Military Government was founded in the original Jingui County and governed by Wuxi and Jingui Counties. In May, 1911, the Xijin Military Government was withdrawn. In 1912, the Wuxi and Jingui Counties were merged as Wuxi County and affiliated to the Suchang. In 1927, Wuxi County was directly affiliated to the Jiangsu Province. From 1934 to 1937, Wuxi County was a government site for commissioners of the Wuxi administrative inspection area. During the Anti-Japanese War, anti-Japanese democratic authorities such as Xibei, Xidong, Taihu, Wunan and Chengxi were founded in four towns of Wuxi.
Wuxi was liberated on April 23, 1949 and was divided into Wuxi City and Wuxi County. Wuxi City was affiliated to the Sunan people’s administrative government offices. In 1953, Jiangsu Province was founded and Wuxi was a provincial city. Wuxi County was affiliated to many regions such as Changzhou area, Wuxi City and Suzhou area. In June, 1958, 4-district layout was basically formed in Wuxi City, namely Chong’an District, Nanchang District, Beitang District and one suburb. In March, 1983, city-govern-county system was adopted and Wuxi County as well as Jiangyin County affiliated to Suzhou and Yixing County affiliated to Zhengjiang were governed by Wuxi City. In 1988, Mashan Town including Mawei region was set up as Mashan District. After the State Council decided to replace counties with cities, Jiangyin County, Yixing County and Wuxi County was changed into Jiangyin City, Yixing City and Xishan City respectively in April of 1987, March of 1988 and June of 1995. In March 1995, the administrative regions in Wuxi City and Wuxi County were partly adjusted and Wuxi New District, which was made up of Wangzhuang Town in suburb, 19 administrative villages such as Shuofang, Fangqian, Xin’an and Meicun together with the National Hi-Tech Development Zone and Wuxi Singapore Industrial Park in Wuxi, was founded. In December, 2000, Xishan City was withdrawn and Xishan District as well as Huishan District was set up. Administrative regions in Mashan District and 9 towns in Xishan City were merged into the suburb of Wuxi which was renamed Binhu District.
Wuxi is a city in southern Jiangsu province, China. The city borders two other large cities, Changzhou to the west and Suzhou to the east, and borders Zhejiang Province as well in the south. It also covers a coastline of the Yangtze River in the north and two separate coasts of Tai Lake. Wuxi is noted for its modern industry and commerce, along with its resorts around Tai Lake. Wuxi is a famous historical and cultural city of China. It has been a land of fish and rice since ancient times. Wuxi is the cradle of China's national industry and township industry.
Wuxi, with another name as Liangxi and called Xi for short, is located at 31°07’ to 32°02’ north latitude and 119°33' to 120°38' east longitude and belongs to the corridor part of rivers and lakes in the Yangtze River Delta and southeast of Jiangsu. The city, in the east, is next to Suzhou and 128 kilometers away from Shanghai; in the south, borders on the Tai Lake and has a common boundary with Zhejiang; in the west, connects Changzhou and has a distance of 183 kilometers from Nanjing; and in the north, is near the Yangtze River, opposite to Jingjiang, a county-level city subordinate to Taizhou. As a provincial city of Jiangsu, the city covers a total area of 4,627.47 square kilometers (1,643.88 square kilometers in urban area, containing 231.3 square kilometers of built-up areas), of which the area of mountainous areas and hills is 782 square kilometers, accounting for 16.90% of the total area, and that of water surfaces is 1,342 square kilometers, occupying 29.0% of the total area.
The territory of Wuxi City is mainly the plain, and low mountains and monadnocks scattering in Wuxi. The southern part of Wuxi is the alluvial plain, northern part is the high sand plain, central part is the riverine polders and the southwest part is the low mountains and hills of Yixing. The landform of Wuxi was formed about 180,000,000 years ago. The Yanshan Mountains movement (happened about 150,000,000 or 70,000,000 years ago), caused by the strong volcano activity and new block fold structure formation, made the original stable base rise again. The Himalaya movement, happened about 25,000,000 years ago and centered as the different uplift and subsidence, strengthened drape and rupture in the east-west on the original base. As a result, a basin was formed in the east of Jiangyin and Yinxing, namely the Taihu Basin. Mountains in Yixing were in an east-west extension with the absolute altitude reached over 500 meters, and the highest is the Huangtading Mountain with the height of 611.5 meters. The hills in Jiangyin and Yixing are in a tend of northeast, and the height gradually steps down from the southwest to the northeast. The highest mountain in Wuxi is Sanmaofeng Mountain of the Huishan Mountain with the altitude of 328.98 meters.
[Population] At the end of 2018, the total registered population of Wuxi was 4,972,100, an increase of 0.8%, namely 41,600, than that in the previous year. Among them, the population in the urban area was 2,631,300, an increase of 1.5%, namely 39,000, than that in the previous year; the population in Jiangyin was 1,259,500, an increase of 0.4%, namely 4,900, than that in the previous year; and the population in Yixing was 1,081,300, a decrease of 0.2%, namely 2,000, than that in the previous year.
Among the total registered population of Wuxi, there were 2,447,200 males and 2,524,800 females, showing the sex ratio (with female as 100) of 96.9. In 2018, among the total registered population of Wuxi, 42,117 people were newly born, with a birth rate of 8.51‰; 36,939 perople were dead, with a death rate of 7.46‰. The natural population growth rate was 1.05‰. Among the total registered population of Wuxi, 56,700 people moved from other places, of which 26,500 people moved to Wuxi from places outside Jiangsu Province, accounting for 46.7%. 19,400 people moved to other places from Wuxi, of which 9,300 people moved to places outside Jiangsu Province, accounting for 47.9%. The rate of registered newly-born population complying to related policies in the whole city reached over 99%. The sex ratio at birth of registered population was 104.1. And the sex ratio at birth of permanent population was 106.93.
Among the total registered population of Wuxi, there were 1,310,895 elderly people, accounting for 26.36% of the total registered population in the whole city. Among them, there were 183,990 elderly people over 80 years old, accounting for 14.04% of the total elderly population. And there were 465 elderly people over 100 years old.
[Employment and Entrepreneurship] In 2018, 161,400 new jobs were created in urban areas in Wuxi and the registered urban unemployment rate was 1.78%, which was the lowest in Jiangsu Province. 4,100 enterprises settled in 24 provincial-level entrepreneurial demonstration bases in the whole city, with an incubation success rate of 82%. 154,900 new enterprise employees in the whole city paid endowment insurance and 96,500 people whose endowment insurance ended continued to pay endowment insurance. The payment of endowment insurance for enterprise employees received the best results over the past 5 years. 7,929 high-level talented people, 1,844 overseas students, 43,893 college graduates were introduced to Wuxi. And 36,755 high-skilled talented people were newly increased. In 2018, Wuxi City was rated as an advanced collective for national employment promotion by the China Association of Employment Promotion for the 11th consecutive year. Seven urban areas (counties) including Jiangyin and Yixing were rated as advanced collectives for employment promotion. It was the first time for the whole Wuxi to win the honor in history. "Chuangxiang Wuxi National Entrepreneurship Action" and "Employment and Unemployment Early Warning System" were shortlisted as local employment innovation events in China. "Employment service standardization and informationization" and "employment assistance precision assistance" were shortlisted as annual local employment innovation practice cases by the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security. Wuxi and Yixing were commended by the Jiangsu Provincial People’s Government for practically implementing employment and entrepreneurship policies.
There are more than 3,100 rivers with a total length of 2,480 kilometers. The total length of rivers in urban areas is 150 kilometers with capacity of 8 million cubic meters. Tai Lake is the center of the water network with an area of 2338.1 square kilometers and the average annual throughput is approximately 52 billion cubic meters. Wuxi is abundant in water resources and supply. According to incomplete information of estimation, the urban reservation is 63.49 million cubic meters with the annual supply capacity of 64.53 million cubic meters.
Wuxi has rich mineral resources which are mainly clay ore, limestone, marble and other non-metallic minerals. There are 11 mineral water wells that passed technical appraisal and among which, five have been developed.
In addition to cultivated plants, Wuxi has abundant local plant resources as well as foreign naturalization plants, which include 141 subjects, 497 genus, 950 species, and 75 varieties. The main categories are bamboo, pine, fir, timber, sassafras, camphor, etc. More than 700 kinds of plants are of medicinal use. Furthermore, there are more than 170 kinds of birds and 90 species of fish. Wuxi is famous for the Three Taihu Whites (silver fish, white fish and white shrimps) and Taihu Dazha Crabs. All these combine to make Wuxi a city known in China as the "land of rice and fish in areas south of the Yangtze River" and the "bright pearl shining over Taihu Lake". Moreover, there are more than 30 species of animals, which include the South China rabbit, pangolin, leopard cat, yellow weasel etc.
Wuxi Sunan International Airport has introduced 7 airlines, including Shenzhen Airlines, China Eastern Airlines, China Southern Airlines, China United Airlines, Air China, Sichuan Airlines and Shenzhen Donghai Airlines, and opened 79 domestic and international lines as well as regional routes, including Beijing, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Hong Kong, Macao, and Osaka. It has 144 flights per day averagely, and average seat kilometer utilization surpasses 80.2%. Besides, the airport also introduces cargo aircrafts to operate freight transport business.
Shanghai-Nanjing High-Speed Railway
Shanghai-Nanjing High-Speed Railway, an internal railway connects Shanghai and Nanjing, runs through Shanghai, Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou, Zhenjiang and Nanjing. The railway is about 300 km long, with 31 stations; and the fastest speed can reach 350 km/h. the fastest Shanghai-Nanjing direct train only takes 73 minutes, and 55 minutes from Wuxi to Nanjing, 34 minutes from Wuxi to Shanghai.
Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway
With a total length about 1,318 kilometers, this Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway which can be called Jinghu High-Speed Railway is a tie connected two major economic zones in the People's Republic of China: the Bohai Sea Rim and the Yangtze River Delta.
Within the territory of Wuxi, the total distance of highways is 7,748.63 kilometers, and the density of classified highways is 167.43 kilometers per 100 square kilometers. Among them, the distance of expressways is 273.88 kilometers, first-class highways 999.16 kilometers, second-class highways 1,703.58 kilometers, third-class highways 1,405.29 kilometers and forth-class highways 3,367.74 kilometers.
In Wuxi, the total distance of channels is 1,687.16 kilometers, and the mileage of classified channels is 481.09 kilometers. Among them, the distance of third-class channels is 76.83 kilometers, forth-class 66.24 kilometers, fifth-class 117.84 kilometers, sixth-class 90.57 kilometers, seventh-class 129.61 kilometers and substandard 1,096.88 kilometers. The density of channels is 35.24 kilometers per 100 square kilometers, and that of classified channels is 10.05 kilometers per 100 square kilometers, ranking in the forefront in Jiangsu.
The quality of water resources for drinking, six sources in all, has reached standards, and the water condition is better than the same period of the previous year. The quality of Taihu water maintains stable, and the water is in light level, with the index of permanganate in Ⅲ category, total phosphorus in Ⅳ category and total nitrogen in Ⅴ category.
Wuxi belongs to the sub-tropical maritime climate zone, with four distinct seasons. It is blessed with a mild climate, plentiful rainfall and ample sunshine. The annual mean temperature is 15.5 degrees centigrade, with a January average of 2.8 degrees centigrade and a July average of 28 degrees centigrade. The city has 250 frost and ice-free days. Rainfall occurs mainly in the summer, with an annual average precipitation of 1,048 mm. Under the impact of complicated factors such as the Taihu Lake waters and hilly areas in southern Yixing, certain parts of Wuxi possess diversified climatic conditions good for growing a variety of crops in both the southern and northern parts.
Within the Wuxi area are the Huishan, Xishan, Junzhangshan, Majishan and Tongguanshan mountains. The city is bisected by the Yangtze River and the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, and shares Taihu Lake with other cities. With so many rivers flowing through the plains, Wuxi has fertile land and is richly endowed with natural resources.
Wuxi is situated at between 119°33′ and 120°38′ east longitude and between 31°7′ and 32°2′north latitude, with the Yangtze River to the north and Taihu Lake cutting into it in the south. Except for a few hills lying in the southwest corner, most parts of the Wuxi area are flat with the average sea level of four meters and belong to the alluvial plain of the Yangtze River Delta.
It has Suzhou to the east; is 128 km from Shanghai; faces Taihu Lake in the south; neighbors Zhejiang Province; abuts Changzhou in the west; is 183 km from Nanjing; has the Yangtze River in the north; and commands 35 km of the golden Yangtze River bank.
The GDP of the whole city reached 11,143.862 billion yuan, which was 7.4% higher than that of the previous year in terms of comparable prices, ranking the second place in the province for the past 14 years. The per capita GDP exceeded 170,000 yuan, reaching 174,300 yuan. The added value of the city's industries above scale reached 361.871 billion yuan, with an increase of 9%, ranking first in the province for the first time in the past 20 years. The city's general public budget revenue reached 101.228 billion yuan, an increase of 8.8%. Among them, tax revenue accounted for 85%, making it one of the 15 cities in China with fiscal revenue of 100 billion yuan. The total import and export volume exceeded 90 billion dollars, reaching 93.444 billion dollars.
Residents' incomes rose steadily. The per capita disposable income of all residents was 46,453 yuan, an increase of 8.6 percent over the previous year. The per capita disposable income of permanent urban residents was 52,659 yuan, an increase of 8.3 percent over the previous year. The per capita disposable income of rural permanent residents was 28,358 yuan, an increase of 8.4 percent over the previous year. The per capita consumption expenditure of all residents was 29,659 yuan, up 6.2% over the previous year; that of permanent urban residents was 32,972 yuan, up 4.9% over the previous year; and that of permanent rural residents was 19,998 yuan, up 8.3% over the previous year.